Nigeria, with 36 states and a federal capital area, is a very fascinating country. Nigeria has approximately 300 ethnic groupings and over 500 spoken languages, with English being the official language. Nigeria, nicknamed the “Giant of Africa,” maintains borders with Benin, Chad, Cameroon, and the Niger Republic. The real record of the ethnic groups in Nigeria is not certain due to the large population, distinct culture, and economic achievements.
Three ethnolinguistic groups are dominant. The Yoruba are the majority in the states of Ogun, Ondo, Oyo, and Osun. In the states of Anambra, Imo, Abia, and Enugu, the Ibo (Igbo) are the majority. In the states of Sokoto, Kaduna, Jigawa, Katsina, and Kano, the Hausa and Fulani are the largest single ethnic groupings.
The Hausas are Nigeria’s largest ethnic group, accounting for 25% of the population and speaking the Hausa language. The Hausa culture, which is found in Nigeria’s north and northwest, is identical across the country. With 99.9% of Muslims and 0.10 percent of Christians, Islam is their primary religion. Despite being major players in Nigerian politics, farming, trading, and cattle ranching are their primary occupations.
The Yoruba ethnic group makes up approximately 21% of Nigeria’s population, making them the country’s second-largest ethnic group. Yoruba people follow Christianity and Islam, however some still adhere to their forefathers’ ancient religion and traditions. This group still values cultural traditions including as music, cultural festivals, traditional Yoruba arts, and architecture. The Yoruba culture is based on a huge population in Nigeria’s southwest and north-central regions, as well as an Oba (King).
The Igbo people of Nigeria’s southeastern region speak Ibo or Igbo as their predominant language. They are primarily traders, while others do handiwork and have formal education. Because of their trading, the ‘Nigerian pidgin English’ frequently substitutes the Igbo language, which dates back to the 9th century and has expanded over Nigeria.
We should be reminded however that the above ethnic groups listed above forms the majority amongst the other ethnic group. Nigeria has a vibrant culture which is shown it its various ethnic tribes.